Reduction of Environmental Pollution in Africa: ICT and Greenhouse Emissions


  • Carmelo Arena University of Calabria
  • Diego Mazzitelli University of Calabria, Department of Business Administration and Law


CO2 emissions; ICT; developing economies; population growth; pollution; environment


The level of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions is under constant scrutiny by many scholars. This is due to the level of growth of the world population and of the Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) sector and consequently to the ever-increasing global economic development, which contribute significantly to the increase in energy consumption and the consequent increase in emissions of CO2. The aim of this study is to examine how CO2 emissions grow with population growth and whether this can be related to industrialization. To achieve this objective, an analysis was conducted on panel data based on Africa over a period of 42 years (1971-2012). The results of the study confirm the relationship between population growth and CO2 emissions, highlighting that pollution in developing countries will increase significantly over 50 years. The study offers theoretical and practical implications. It contributes to expand the scientific literature and debate on the environmental conditions of Africa and provides useful suggestions for policymakers to implement industrial, urban, and social policies to build a global sustainable development that includes the poorest countries.


Download data is not yet available.


Asatani, K.; Takeda, H.; Yamano, H.; Sakata, I. (2020). Scientific Attention to Sustainability and SDGs: Meta-Analysis of Academic Papers. Energies 2020, 13, 975.

Majeed, M. T. (2018). Information and communication technology (ICT) and environmental sustainability in developed and developing countries. Pakistan Journal of Commerce and Social Sciences, 12(3), 758-783.

Magazzino, C; Porrini, D; Fusco, G.; Schneider, N. (2021). Investigating the link among ICT, electricity consumption, air pollution, and economic growth in EU countries. Energy Sources, Part B: Economics, Planning, and Policy, 16(11–12), 976–998.

Charfeddine, L.; Umlai, M. (2023). ICT sector, digitization and environmental sustainability: A systematic review of the literature from 2000 to 2022. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 184,

Hilty L. M; Arnfalk P., Erdmann L., Goodman J., Lehmann M., Wäger P. A. (2006). The relevance of information and communication technologies for environmental sustainability – A prospective simulation study. Environmental Model Software, 21(11):1618–1629.

Khan FN; Sana A; Arif U. (2020). Information and communication technology (ICT) and environmental sustainability: a panel data analysis. Environmental Science Pollution Research International;27(29):36718-36731. doi: 10.1007/s11356-020-09704-1

Ajakaiye, O.; Kaplinsky, R. (2009). China in Africa: A Relationship in Transition. European Journal of Development Research 21, 479–484

Asiedu, B.A. Do international investment contribute to environmental pollution? Evidence from 20 African countries. Environmental Science and Pollution Research 28, 41627–41637.

Simbanegavi, W.; Arndt, C. (2014). Climate Change and Economic Development in Africa: An Overview, Journal of African Economies, 23(2),

Schwerhoff, G.; Sy, M. (2019). Developing Africa’s energy mix. Climate Policy, 19(1), 108–124.

Steiner, A. (2019). "Climate Change, Environment, and Sustainable Development in Africa", Nnadozie, E. and Jerome, A. (Ed.) African Economic Development, Emerald Publishing Limited, Leeds, pp. 93-110.

Ayetor, G.K.; Opoku, R.; Sekyere, C.K.K.; Agyeman, A.A.; Deyegbe, G.R. (2022). The cost of a transition to electric vehicles in Africa: A case study of Ghana. Case Studies on Transport Policy 10(1), 388-395,

IEA (2022), Africa Energy Outlook 2022, IEA, Paris:, License: CC BY 4.0

Sheahan, M.; Barrett, C. (2017). Review: Food loss and waste in Sub-Saharan Africa. Food Policy, 70, 1-12,

EPA (2021). Sources of Greenhouse Gas Emissions.,increased%20by%2015%25%20from%202020

Forti, V.; Baldé, C. P.; Kuehr, R.; Bel, G. (2020). The global e-waste monitor 2020. United Nations University (UNU), International Telecommunication Union (ITU) & International Solid Waste Association (ISWA), Bonn/Geneva/Rotterdam, 120

Guengant, J.P.; May, J.F. (2013). African Demography. Global Journal of Emerging Market Economies, 5(3), 215-267.

Haouas, I.; Haseeb, M.; Azam, M.; Ur Rehman, Z. (2023). Do demographic factors affect the environment? Empirical evidence from the Middle East and North African countries. Environmental Science Pollution Research 30, 77077–77095.

Yang, H.; Huang, X.; Westervelt, D.M.; Horowitz, L.; Peng, W. (2023). Socio-demographic factors shaping the future global health burden from air pollution. Nature Sustainability 6, 58–68.

Cramer, J. C. (2002). Population Growth and Local Air Pollution: Methods, Models, and Results. Population and Development Review, 28, 22–52.

Bergaglio, M. (2017). The contemporary illusion: population growth and sustainability. Environment, Development and Sustainability 19, 2023–2038.

Bhargava, A. (2019). Climate change, demographic pressures and global sustainability, Economics & Human Biology

Hara, T. (2022). Demographic Sustainability. In: May, J.F., Goldstone, J.A. (eds) International Handbook of Population Policies. International Handbooks of Population, vol 11. Springer, Cham.

IEA Ranking.

Bakare, A. S. (2012). A correlation analysis of the demand for education and economic growth in Nigeria: The spearman rank correlation coefficient approach. Journal of Emerging Trends in Educational Research and Policy Studies, 3(2), 121-125.

Shen, H., Shen, H., & Wang, N. (2023). Construction of Social Stability Index System Based on Spearman Analysis. Journal of Sociology and Ethnology, 5(5), 26-35. DOI: 10.23977/jsoce.2023.050506

Hauke, J., & Kossowski, T. (2011). Comparison of values of Pearson's and Spearman's correlation coefficients on the same sets of data. Quaestiones geographicae, 30(2), 87-93.

Xiao, C., Ye, J., Esteves, R. M., and Rong, C. (2016) Using Spearman's correlation coefficients for exploratory data analysis on big dataset. Concurrency and Computation: Practice and Experience., 28: 3866–3878. doi: 10.1002/cpe.3745

Dean R. Appling (2008). Software Review of Prism 5. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 130 (18), 6056-6056 DOI: 10.1021/ja801998j

Liao, H.; Tang, M.; Luo, L.; Li, C.; Chiclana, F.; Zeng, X.-J. (2018) A Bibliometric Analysis and Visualization of Medical Big Data Research. Sustainability, 10, 166.

Aşıcı, A.A. (2013) Economic growth and its impact on environment: A panel data analysis, Ecological Indicators, Volume 24, 324-333,

Ma, M.; Zhu, X.; Liu, M.; Huang, X. (2023). Combining the role of green finance and environmental sustainability on green economic growth: Evidence from G-20 economies, Renewable Energy, 207,128-136,

Ofori, I.K.; Gbolonyo, E.Y.; Ojong, N. (2023). Foreign direct investment and inclusive green growth in Africa: Energy efficiency contingencies and thresholds, Energy Economics, 117, 106414,

Kojo, R.; Paschal, N. (2018). Urban population growth and environmental sustainability in Nigeria. Journal of Empirical Studies, 5(1), 12-19. DOI: 10.18488/journal.66.2018.51.12.19

Byrne, D. M. & Corrado, C. A. (2015). ICT Services and Their Prices: What Do They Tell Us About Productivity and Technology? FEDS Working Paper No. 2017-15,

Chakraborty, D. & Mukherjee, S. (2013). How do trade and investment flows affect environmental sustainability? Evidence from panel data, Environmental Development, 6, 34-47,

Sekrafi, H. (2021). International tourism, growth and environmental quality: the case of three North African countries. European Journal of Volunteering and Community-Based Projects, 1(1), 22-36. Retrieved from

World Health Organization. (2009). Protecting health from climate change: connecting science, policy and people.

IPCC Report 2021,

Cevik, S.; Jalles, J. T. (2022). An apocalypse foretold: Climate shocks and sovereign defaults. Open Economies Review, 33(1), 89-108.

Kruttli, M. S., Roth Tran, B., & Watugala, S. W. (2023). Pricing Poseidon: Extreme weather uncertainty and firm return dynamics. Available at SSRN 3284517

Secinaro, S.; Brescia, V.; Lanzalonga, F.; Santoro, G. (2022). Smart city reporting: A bibliometric and structured literature review analysis to identify technological opportunities and challenges for sustainable development, Journal of Business Research, 149, 296-313,



How to Cite

Arena, C., & Mazzitelli, D. (2024). Reduction of Environmental Pollution in Africa: ICT and Greenhouse Emissions. European Journal of Volunteering and Community-Based Projects, 1(2), 1-16. Retrieved from