T Technology Acceptance by University Teachers: A Demographic Analysis


  • Irfan Ashraf International Islamic University, Islamabad Pakistan
  • Nabibux Jumani
  • Amjad Ali


Educational Technology, Acceptance, Adoption, Higher Education, Academics


Teaching processes have been evolved over centuries by adopting new approaches, methods, tools, and technologies. Teachers must carefully use, evaluate, and adopt the changes to utilize these technologies for teaching. The prime focus of this study was to explore technology acceptance by university academics and to analyze it with demographic characteristics. A mixed-method approach using sequential explanatory design was employed for the collection of data. The population of the study was comprised of university teachers around Pakistan.  A sample of 300 teachers was selected by employing proportionate stratified random sampling and 20 teachers were selected for the conduct of interviews. A five-point Likert scale questionnaire was developed for quantitative data collection. Validity was ensured through experts’ evaluation and pilot testing. Internal consistency and reliability of questionnaire items was checked through Cronbach’s alpha and found 0.83. Researcher himself visited the target audience for data collection. Data were analyzed through SPSS with arithmetic means, standard deviation, ANOVA, t-test, and posthoc multiple comparisons. Salient findings revealed that male teachers were significantly better in technology acceptance than their female counterparts; a significant and strong positive relationship was observed between technology acceptance and demographic characteristics of teachers. Technology Acceptance by university teachers was significantly less. It was recommended that female teachers must be imparted training regarding the effective use of technology and customized training must be conducted to enhance technology usage at the university level.


Download data is not yet available.


Amin, A., Rajadurai, J. (2018). The conflict between social media and higher education institutions. Global Business and Management Research: An International Journal. 10(4):1–11.

Al-Senaidi, S., Lin, L., Poirot, J. (2009). Barriers to adopting technology for teaching and learning in Oman. Computers & Education. 53(3):575–590.

Abdulrahim, A. & Almusawi, (2003). Internet services by Sultan Qaboos University faculty members. International Journal of Instructional Media. USA. 30 (2). 163-176

Akir, Z. (2006). Impact of information and communication technology on teaching and training: A Qualitative systematic review. (Electronic Thesis or Dissertation). Retrieved from https://etd.ohiolink.edu/

Aypay, A. (2010). ICT usage and academic achievement of Turkish students in PISA 2006. Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology (TOJET), 9, 2.

Bayhan, Olgun, P. & Yelland, N.Y. (2002). A study of pre-school teachers’ thoughts about computer-assisted instruction. Contemporary Issues in Early Childhood, 3, 2, 298-303.

Braun, V., & Clarke, V. (2013). Successful qualitative research: A practical guide for beginners. Sage.

Cabero-Almenara, J., Arancibia, M. L., & Del Prete, A. (2019). Technical and didactic knowledge of the Moodle LMS in higher education. Beyond functional use. Journal of New Approaches in Educational Research, 8(1), 25–33. 10.7821/naer.2019.1.327.

Christofi, M., Nunes, M., Peng, G. (2009). Identifying and Improving Deficient Business Processes to Prepare SMEs for ERP Implementation. Information Systems & eBusiness Research Centers Papers.

Cifuentes, L., Maxwell, G., & Bulu, S. (2011). Technology Integration Through Professional Learning Community. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 44(1), 59–82. https://doi.org/10.2190/EC.44.1.d

Creswell, J.W., Vicki, L. Clark, P. (2011). Designing and Conducting Mixed Methods Research. (2nd ed.). Los Angeles: Sage Publications.

Dantoe, S. S. (2018). Educational Technology Adopters: A Case Study in University of Botswana. International Journal of Education and Development Using Information and Communication Technology, 14(1), 52-90.

Davis, R. (2018). Increasing Technology Usage Throughout Teacher Preparation: The Importance of Pre-service Teachers' Acceptance. In E. Langran & J. Borup (Eds.), Proceedings of Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education International Conference (pp. 2019-2024). Washington, D.C., United States: Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE).

Englund, C., Olofsson, A. D., Price, P. (2017). Teaching with technology in higher education: Understanding conceptual change and development in practice. Higher Education Research & Development. 36(1):73–87.

Ellahi, A. & Zaka (2014). Correlates of computer anxiety in college students. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia

Fathema, N. (2013). Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) of an extended Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) to report web technology adoption behavior in higher education institutions (Ph.D thesis). Auburn University, Auburn, AL, United States

Fathema, N., Sutton, K. (2013). Factors influencing faculty members’ Learning Management Systems adoption behavior: An analysis using the Technology Acceptance Model. International Journal of Trends in Economics Management & Technology, Vol. II(vi), pg20-28

Franklin, T., & Thankachan, B. (2012). Developing a wiki for problem-based online instruction and web 2.0 exploration In K. Seo (Ed.), Using Social Media Effectively in the Classroom Blogs, Wikis, Twitter, and more (1st ed., pp.

-97). New York: Routledge.

Gay, L. R., Mills, G. E., & Airasian, P. (2012). Educational Research: Competencies for Analysis and Application, (10th ed.): Pearson Education Inc.

Gasaymeh, M. A. (2009). A Study of Faculty Attitudes toward Internet-Based Distance Education: A Survey of Two Jordanian Public Universities. Ph. D Dissertation. College of Education of Ohio University

Gyamfi, S. A. (2017). Information and Communication Technology Acceptance in Education: A Study of Pre-service Teachers in Ghana. International Journal of Education and Development using Information and Communication Technology, 11(1), 80-100.

John, S. (2015). The Integration of Information Technology in Higher Education: A Study of Faculty's Attitude towards its Adoption in the Teaching. International Business and Economy Conference (IBEC) Bangkok, Thailand, January 5-8, 2015. Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=2550007 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2550007

John, P. & La Velle, L. (2004). Devices and Desires: Subject subcultures, pedagogical identity and challenge of information and communication technology. Technology, Pedagogy and Education. 13. 307-326.

Hoffman, M. S. (2013). An examination of motivating factors on faculty participation in online higher education. (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from ProQuest Dissertations and Thesis.

Holden, H., & RAda, R. (2011). Understanding the influence of perceived usability and technology self-efficacy on teachers’ technology acceptance. University of Maryland Baltimore, County, Baltimore JRTE. Vol 43, No. 4, pp. 343-367.

Hu, C., & Wong, A. (2006). Video conferencing by student teachers: Does it make any difference? new horizons in educational, 53, 42-56. Retrieved from http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ847598.pdf

Jackson, B. (2019). Higher Education Faculty Desire to Implement Digital Tools: A Follow-Up Study. International Journal on E-Learning, 18(4), 373-393. Waynesville, NC USA: Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE).

Taras, H. & Kartoglu, U. (2018). Authentic learning with technology for professiona l developmentin vaccine management. Australian Journal of Educational Technology, 34(5), 15-29, rerieved 14th November,2018 from: https//:www.://doi.org/10

Kessler, G. (2009). Student-initiated attention to form in wiki-based collaborative writing. Language Learning & Technology, 13(1), 7995. Retrieved January 31, 2019, from http://llt.msu.edu/vol13num1/kessler.pdf

Khan, R. (2018). Determining the influence of new moderators of UTAUT2 in the adoption of learning management systems using structural equation modeling. In E. Langran & J. Borup (Eds.), Proceedings of society for Information Technology & Teacher Education International Conference (pp. 2365-2370). Washington, D.C. United States: Association for advancement of computing in education

Khalil, S. M. (2013). From resistance to acceptance and use of technology in academia. Open Praxis, 5(2), 151-163. International Council for Open and Distance Education.

Ko, S. S., & Rossen, S. (2017). Teaching Online: A practical guide. (4th Ed.) London : Routledge

Lazar I. M., Panisoara G, Panisoara I. O. (2020). Digital technology adoption scale in the blended learning context in higher education: Development, validation and testing of a specific tool. PLoS ONE 15(7)

Laurillard, D. (2013). Rethinking University Teaching: A Conversational Framework for Effective Use of Learning Technologies (2nd ed.). Rutledge Publishers. ISBN:113640905X, 9781136409059.

Lewis, C.C., Fretwell, C.E., Ryan, J. & Parham, J.B. (2013). Faculty Use of Established and Emerging Technologies in Higher Education: A Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology Perspective. International Journal of Higher Education, 2(2), 22-34.

Loughran, J. (2013). Pedagogy: Making sense of the complex relationship between teaching and learning. Curriculum Inquiry. 43(1):118–141.

Akbar, M. (2016). Digital Technologies shaping Teaching Practices in Higher Education. https://doi.org/10.3389/fict.2016.00001. Retrieved on 20 August, 2020.

Machado, L. J., & Chung, C. (2015). Integrating technology: The principal’s role and effect. International Education Studies, 8(5), 43-53. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.5539/ies.v8n5p43

Manca, S. (2020). Snapping, pinning, liking or texting: Investigating social media in higher education beyond Facebook. The Internet and Higher Education. 44:1–13.

Manca, S., Ranieri, M. (2016). Facebook and the others Potentials and obstacles of social media for teaching in higher education. Computers & Education. 95:216–230.

Marshall, S. (2018). ICT access, acceptance and use in education and training. International Journal of Education and Development using ICT, 14(2),. Open Campus, The University of the West Indies, West Indies. Retrieved December 8, 2019 from https://www.learntechlib.org/p/.

McIssac, M. S, Gunawardena, C. N. (2001). Distance Education. In David H. Jonassen, (Ed), Handbook of Research for Educational Communications and Technology. p. 403-437.

Mishra, P., & Koehler, M. J. (2006). Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge: A new framework for teacher knowledge. Teachers College Record 108 (6), 1017-1054.

Motaghian, H., Hassanzadeh, A., & Moghadam, D.K. (2013). Factors affecting university instructors' adoption of web-based learning systems: Case study of Iran. Computers & Education, 61, 158-167.

Newhouse, C., Trinidad, S., & Clarkson, B. (2002). Quality pedagogy and effective learning with information and communication technology: A Review of the Literature. ER

Nour & Samia, (2011). ‘The Use and economic impacts of information and communication technology in Sudan’. MERIT Working Papers 060, United Nations University.

Petko, D. (2012). Teachers' pedagogical beliefs and their use of digital media in classrooms: Sharpening the focus of the 'will, skill, tool' model and integrating teachers' constructivist orientations. Computers & Education. 58. 1351-1359. 10.1016/j.compedu.2011.12.013.

Parra, J. (2019). Using TPACK to teach future teachers in an undergraduate integrating technology with teaching course. In K. Graziano (Ed.), Proceedings of Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education International Conference (pp. 61-64).

Richardson, W. (2010). Blogs, wikis, podcasts, and other powerful web tools for classrooms. (3rd ed.). Corwin Press.

Saifi, I. L. (2016). Administrative Barriers of Distance Education in Dual Mode Universities of Pakistan M.S Dissertation. The Islamia University of Bahawalpur. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.34789.04326.

Saunders G, Klemming F. Integrating technology into a traditional learning environment. Active Learning in Higher Education. 2016;4(1):74–86.

Shana, Z. & Abulibdeh, E. (2017). Cloud Computing Issues for Higher Education: Theory of Acceptance Model. International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning (iJET), 12(11), 168-184. Kassel, Germany: International Association of Online Engineering.

Sharma, Y. K. (2018). Fundamental Aspects of Educational Technology (2nd ed.). Kanishka Publishers & Distributors, New Delhi.

Schoonenboom, J. (2014). Using an adapted, task-level technology acceptance model to explain why instructors in higher education intend to use some learning management system tools more than others. Computers & Education, 71(1), 247-256. Elsevier Ltd. Retrieved on December 8, 2019 from https://www. learntechlib.org/p/200572/.

Stathopoulou, A., Siamagka, N., Christodoulides, G. (2019). A multi-stakeholder view of social media as a supporting tool in higher education: An educator-student perspective. European Management Journal. 37:421–443.

Teixeira, L., Costa, C. & Alvelos, H. (2019). Investigating the use and acceptance of technologies by professors in a higher education institution. International Journal of Online Pedagogy and Course Design, 9(2), 1-20. IGI GLibal. Retrieved December 8, 2019 from https://www.learntechlib.org/p/.

Thorvaldsen, S., & Madsen, S. S. (2020). Perspectives on the tensions in teaching with technology in Norwegian teacher education analyzed using Argyris and Schön’s theory of action. Education and Information Technologies.10.1007/s10639-020-10221-4.

Osman, N.A.A. (2014). The Acceptance and Use of Information and Communication Technologies by Staff Members in Khartoum State's Universities (Sudan). Publisher: Verlag Nicht Ermittelbar. UR. https://books.google.com.pk/

Venkatesh, V., Morris, M. G., Davis, G. B., & Davis, F. D. (2003). User acceptance of information technology: Toward a unified view. MIS Quarterly, 27(3), 425-478.

Vandeyar, T. (2020). The academic turn: Social media in higher education. Educ Inf Technol. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10639-020-10240-1

Wang, Y., Wu, M., & Wang, H. (2009). Investigating the determinants and age and gender differences in the acceptance of mobile learning. British Journal of Educational Technology, 40(1), 92-118. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8535.2007.00809.x.

Wong, K., Teo, T., & Russo, P. (2014). Development of the Interactive Whiteboard Acceptance Scale (IWBAS): An initial study. Journal of Educational Technology & Society, 17(4), 268–277



How to Cite

Ashraf, I., Jumani, N., & Ali, A. (2020). T Technology Acceptance by University Teachers: A Demographic Analysis. European Journal of Volunteering and Community-Based Projects, 1(3), 41-57. Retrieved from https://pkp.odvcasarcobaleno.it/index.php/ejvcbp/article/view/20